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Nature, culture and history

Nature, culture and history

The Glass House Mountains, from Pumicestone Passage. Photo: Queensland Government.

The Glass House Mountains, from Pumicestone Passage. Photo: Queensland Government.

The volcanic peaks of the Glass House Mountains rise dramatically from the surrounding Sunshine Coast landscape. The Glass House Mountains were named by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The following extract from Cook's journal on Thursday, 17 May 1770 noted:

'These hills lie but a little way inland and not far from each other, they are very remarkable on account of their singular form of elevation, which very much resemble glass houses which occasioned my giving them that name...'

Natural environment

Mount Coonowrin, like the other Glass House Mountains, is an example of a volcanic plug. Photo: Ross Naumann, Queensland Government volunteer

Mount Coonowrin, like the other Glass House Mountains, is an example of a volcanic plug. Photo: Ross Naumann, Queensland Government volunteer

From the day-use area, the vertical columns are clearly visible on Mount Beerwah. Photo: Ross Naumann, Queensland Government volunteer

From the day-use area, the vertical columns are clearly visible on Mount Beerwah. Photo: Ross Naumann, Queensland Government volunteer

The park has significant landscape and conservation values.

Plants

Glass House Mountains National Park contains a wide variety of terrain such as rocky peaks and pavements, steep hill slopes, gullies and swampy coastal plains which provides habitat for many different vegetation communities.

The peaks themselves protect montane heath, an uncommon community on the Queensland coast, while heathlands, forest and woodlands are found across the surrounding hills and plains.

These diverse areas, and particularly the rocky pavements of the peaks, are important for biodiversity, providing habitat for twenty-three plant species of conservation significance.

Sixteen of these species are listed as endangered, vulnerable or near threatened under the Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 2006 while seven are of conservation interest due to restricted distribution.

Discover more about the park’s plants by purchasing a copy of the 'Ranger field guide: Native plants of Glass House Mountains National Park'.

Wildlife

This area is home to koalas, goannas, echidnas and grey kangaroos.

Many birds such as kookaburras, cockatoos, lorikeets, rosellas and peregrine falcons can also be seen. The glossy black-cockatoo, which is considered vulnerable to extinction, is found in the Glass House Mountains area.

Obtain a species list for the park.

Geology

The Glass House Mountains are intrusive plugs—remnants of volcanic activity that occurred approximately 25–27 million years ago.

Molten rock filled small vents or intruded as bodies beneath the surface and solidified into hard rocks—trachyte and rhyolite.

Millions of years of erosion have removed the surrounding exteriors of the volcanic cones and softer sandstone rocks leaving the magnificent landscape features you see today.

As the volcanic mountains cooled, interesting vertical columns formed and this feature can be seen today at Mount Beerwah, Mount Ngungun and Mount Coonowrin.

Culture and history

The Glass House Mountains silhouetted against the setting sun, from Moreton Bay. Photo: Queensland Government.

The Glass House Mountains silhouetted against the setting sun, from Moreton Bay. Photo: Queensland Government.

Exotic pine plantations have surrounded the Glass House Mountains since the 1930s. Photo: Queensland Government.

Exotic pine plantations have surrounded the Glass House Mountains since the 1930s. Photo: Queensland Government.

Aboriginal links to the land

The Glass House Mountains area was a special meeting place where many Aboriginal people gathered for ceremonies and trading. This place is considered spiritually significant with many ceremonial sites still present and protected today.

Aboriginal people could 'read' environmental signs and knew that certain events (such as a tree flowering) heralded another food supply. The people here planned large festivals and gatherings such as bunya nut festivals at times when local food sources were peaking. This way a crowd of hundreds of people could be catered for with minimal effort. Early missionaries in this area saw gatherings of thousands of people.

The bush here sustained people for thousands of years. The Glass House Mountains area provided many resources from a varied and rich environment which included river systems, open forests, coastal wetlands and mountain forests.

European settlement

During the 1860s, much changed for the Aboriginal people here. Vast areas of timber were felled and burnt to make way for farming and stock. The railway from Caboolture to Landsborough, built in 1890, opened the way for more intensive settlement. As part of the Beerburrum soldier settlement scheme in the early 1900s, ex-servicemen and their families were allocated land and grew pineapples. However, many farms were unsuccessful and farmers turned to the timber industry to survive.

Beerwah has a long history in the timber industry. A substantial saw-milling town called Campbellville was established on the banks of Coochin Creek where timber was processed and floated downstream to Pumicestone Passage. Today the timber industry still provides timber from the exotic pine and native hardwood timber plantations.

The forest plantations in this area were planted in the early 1930s and are currently managed by HQPlantations Pty Ltd. The 'Tibrogargan' and 'Twins' forest management areas were re-planted in the 1980s and 1990s with Caribbean pine, slash pine, and a slash-Caribbean pine hybrid. Some of these commercial forests are scheduled to be harvested in 2020.

Timber from these forests will be sold to local timber processors. Queensland's forest plantations are worth more than $1 billion per year and supply 85 percent of the timber used each year by Queensland's regionally-based timber industry.

Before harvesting forest plantations, foresters mark native timbers along watercourses as buffer strips so that they are preserved. These buffer strips protect water quality, prevent erosion and provide corridors for wildlife.

For further information about plantation forests contact HQPlantations Pty Ltd.

Thanks

Special thanks to the local aboriginal people for sharing their knowledge. Also special thanks to Stan Tutt for information from his book Sunshine Coast Heritage, and Pat and Sim Symons for information from their book Bush Heritage.

Last updated
21 August 2017